Energy Efficiency projects aim to decrease the amount of energy that is consumed, while maintaining the same level of output. 
Energy does not only refer to electricity, it also refers to petrol, diesel, coal, paraffin, etc. In South Africa, however, the bulk of our electricity is generated from the burning of coal.
In most instances, the first step in Energy Efficiency is establishing a baseline and determining what and how you consume energy.
1. Division of Revenue Act (DoRA) Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management (EEDSM) Progamme
The Energy Efficiency Demand Site Management Program (EEDSM) program was initiated by National Government for the purpose of achieving greater energy efficiency in the country. The EEDSM program is funded by National Treasury through the Division of Revenue Act (DoRA) and focuses on reducing energy consumption in Municipal owned and operated infra- structure.
The eThekwini Municipality has participated in the EEDSM program for the past five years and has been allocated a total of R103 Million over this period. This budget has been allocated to the following types of retrofits:
Traffic Lighting:  R 25,400,000
Street Lighting:   R 24,800,000
Building lighting: R 45,100,000
Energy Management:  R   5,000,000
Implementation: R   2,700,000
The program has resulted in significant cost saving to the Municipality both in energy consumption saved and maintenance costs. The new energy efficient technologies last much longer and therefore need to be replaced less often. The main difficulty experienced in implementing the program was the limited availability of accurate energy consumption data. The effectiveness of interventions is therefore difficult to evaluate. The eThekwini Municipality is therefore prioritizing the implementation of energy management systems in order to better target interventions in energy efficiency and to create a baseline for future interventions.
EEDSM Buildings (Top 17 Buildings)
This project is a sub-component of the broader EEDSM Program. This is a newly introduced project for a lighting and hot water retrofit of a number of municipal buildings. The eThekwini Municipality has approximately 1,341 buildings with individual electricity meters and there have been a number of interventions in some of the larger electricity consumers (through previous EEDSM allocations). In this project, 17 municipal buildings have be identified through a number of parameters ranging from levels of power consumption, potential for savings (R/Kwh), ease of access etc. In these facilities, no prior interventions have taken place and will see the retrofit of lighting and hot-water technologies.
EEDSM Buildings (2014-2015)
This is the fourth phase of the EEDSM Building Energy Efficiency Project. The project scope and target buildings are currently being finalised.
Energy Management System (EnMS)
The aim is to develop a vendor free central energy database repository for the retrieval, collection and storage of data for energy and other operational data from a spatially distributed system of meters and sensors located at various plant and facilities within the eThekwini Municipality.
The objective is to utilise such data to develop baselines to allow for energy targeting and to be able to monitor, optimise both operational energy usage and costs. This will be achieved through the use of operational, management and executive dashboards which utilise the necessary data required at various levels throughout the organisation in both historical, semi-real time and real-time. As such the capability to aggregate, compare, develop and set baselines with energy related data, over interval, day, week, month, quarter, annual over both normal and fiscal years will be developed.
The EnMS will ultimately provide information that will allow the municipality to save energy by identifying areas where energy is being wasted, systems fault, allocate bills to officials (individual departments) and validate billing information.
EEDSM – FEMT and EnMSI Training
This project is a sub-component of the broader EEDSM program. There are 2 phases to this project. The one is a staff capacity building project and the other is linked to students who have participated in the Building Energy Audit Training (BEAT) program.
The staff capacity building project has already been completed. We appointed Energy Cybernetics to conduct training of municipal staff for Energy Management Training Fundamental of Energy Management Training and Energy Management Systems. The training covered a range of energy fundamentals that will equip trainees to identify energy saving opportunities and propose energy saving interventions.
There is collaboration between ESKOM and Mangosuthu University of Technology (MUT) through the Building Energy Audit Training Program (BEAT). Students from MUT have participated in the BEAT program, but require practical hands on experience with building audits. It is the intention to provide these students with the auditing experience during future projects.
EEDSM - Health Building
This project is a sub-component of the broader EEDSM program. The scope of this project largely entailed replacement of the existing lighting with energy efficient lighting and the automatic control of lighting to selected areas with monitoring capabilities with the City Health Building.
EEDSM – Monitoring and Verification
This project is a sub-component of the broader EEDSM program. The aim of this project was to develop a Monitoring and Verification system that is compliant with the Division of Revenue Act (DoRA) grant requirements for energy efficiency demand site management (EEDSM) interventions.
EThekwini Municipality is required as per contractual agreement with the Department of Energy to appoint an independent consultant to conduct monitoring and verification for the funded interventions. The project is managed by eThekwini Municipality Architecture Services in collaboration with the Energy Office and funded by the DoRA grant. Igoda (Pty) Ltd and SSI Engineers consulting companies specializing in monitoring and verification were procured in April 2014 to carry out M&V for the EEDSM interventions implemented in Municipal owned infrastructure. The process is still in progress.
EEDSM Staff Energy Efficiency Campaign
The aim of this project is to develop and implement a campaign to create awareness on energy efficiency and energy efficient technologies. The initial phase of the campaign will target staff members.
A pilot was done at the City Health Building and the following areas of efficiency were highlighted:
1. Lighting;
2. Electronic equipment;
3. Use of hydro-boil or kettles;
4. Lifts; and
5. Air-conditioners.
Behavioural change will be encouraged through a series of printed posters that will be strategically placed in Municipal Buildings. 
EEDSM – Supply Road Springfield
This project is a sub-component of the broader EEDSM Program. This aim of this project is to retrofit various technologies at the Durban Solid Waste Head Quarters in Springfield park.
This project was initially planned as part of the S.O.P programme provided by Eskom. The purpose of this intervention was to effectively achieve energy efficiency savings target of a minimum 200kw or 832000kwh pa by removing and replacing old lighting and thermal equipment. A lighting and thermal count inspection was conducted, thereafter an audit on technologies and identifying feasible replacements, followed by the disposal of inefficient technologies and installation of new technologies.
The project will target the following areas within DSW:
• DSW Head Quarter Offices
• DSW Bulk and Resource Offices
• DSW ACO Offices
• DSW PitStop Workshop and Offices
• DSW Ablution Areas
• Water Finance
• Old Barracks
• Water Construction Branch
• Water Construction Storage
• Water Ablution Areas
• Metre Room
The detailed baseline report and tender documents for implementation have been completed.
2. Low Pressure Solar Water Heating Program (LPSWHP)
The National Department of Energy (DOE) and Eskom funded the installation of low pressure Solar Water Heaters (SWHs) for low-cost housing. The SWHs were initially paid through a rebate system managed by ESKOM and as a result the installation is at no cost to the customer.
The Energy Office and eThekwini Housing Department have played a co-management role in the program. A panel of ESKOM accredited SWH Service Providers was established by the Energy Office. The service providers took responsibility for the installation of the unit, on site data capturing and communication with the community and councillors. The service providers also trained local community members to assist with the installation of units and conduct awareness raising programs in the community. The role of the Energy Office was to ensure that the installations meet minimum quality requirements and that there is clear communication amongst all stakeholders.
The program sets out to achieve the following:
1) Promote the use of renewable energy as a reliable alternative source of electricity
2) Reduce the city’s carbon footprint.
3) Create jobs and economic development opportunities through the program.
4) Install 30000 units by the end of 2013.
5) All RDP houses to be installed by the end of 2015
6) All viable township houses to be installed by end of 2020
The program has been suspended pending the finalization of the new round of tenders by ESKOM. Further information about the future of the program is pending from ESKOM and the Department of Energy. There is also uncertainty in the allocation of SWHs to different Metros around the country.
Before the programme was suspended, the eThekwini Municipality facilitated the installation of over 30,000 Low Pressure Solar Water Heater in the eThekwini Municipal Area.
Facilitation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) registration
This project is a sub-component of the broader low cost SWH program. The objective of the project is to develop and implement a Clean Development Mechanism for the Low Cost SWH program in the eThekwini Municipality.
The project aims to earn carbon credits that will fund the future maintenance of the units. The project was implemented in partnership between the EPCPD and Energy Office during the greening process of the World Cup. The service of Deloitte and Touche was contracted to manage process. The project saw the development of the first program of actions (POA) clean development mechanism for a Municipality in South Africa. The actual CDM registration took place on the 23th July 2013 with crediting period from 25th January to 24th January 2020.
No component project activities (CPA)s have been registered as these are dependent on the future roll-out of the national SWH program.
More details on the POA here:
3. Internal Energy Management Program (IEMP)
The objective of this program is to implement a holistic approach to energy management in municipal infrastructure. The program includes the development of an internal energy management policy and various energy efficiency interventions in municipal infrastructure and various smaller projects that link to this broader policy.
The Energy Office is responsible for the overview of this program implementation. An Energy Management Steering Committee (EMSC) will be constituted with membership representing each of the entities responsible for major energy use within the municipality. Responsibility for the implementation of each of the interventions identified by the EMSC will be allocated to the entity within the municipality unit most directly responsible for the system concerned. A Systems Optimization Approach to Energy Management will be adopted.
The eThekwini Energy Management System (EEMS) will be developed to systematically record energy demand by its internal infrastructure systems as well as to plan, implement, audit and make continuous improvements to the system (i.e. adopting a Plan, Do, Check and Act cycle) which is described in detail in the procedures section of the policy. The Energy Office will establish a system of electricity monitoring that will provide up to date and accurate information to municipal departments on their electricity use. An energy intervention finance competency will be established at the Energy Office to assist departments to secure funding for energy management interventions identified by the Energy Management Steering Committee.
IEMP – Heat Pump and SWH Installations
This project is a sub-component of the broader IEMP program. The aim of the project is to develop and manage a municipal infrastructure heat pump and solar water heater program. The key objectives of the project are:
• Assessment of current heat pump and solar water heater stock
• Planning and liaison with line departments for installations of units
• Site visits and site assessments
• Developing an implementation plan for each installation (this could include a number of heat pumps per site)
The project is in progress.
IEMP – Kings Park Pool
This project is a sub-component of the broader IEMP program. The aim of the energy efficiency assessment is to identify energy saving opportunities at the swimming pool and its operations.
The Kings park swimming pool is a heated pool and one of the biggest energy consumers in the eThekwini Municipality owned building category. The assessment was conducted by the Energy Office with the objective of reducing energy consumption, associated costs and carbon footprint. The focus areas of the assessment were lighting, heating and cooling. Intervention is still in progress.
IEMP – KwaDabeka SWH Monitoring Project
This project is a sub-component of the broader IEMP program. The aim of this project is to compare the energy consumption in flats at the KwaDabeka CRU that have solar heated hot water to those that do not in order to assess energy saving from intervention.
Eighteen 2m2 solar arrays were installed at the KwaDabeka Community Residential Unit (CRU) in June 2011, supplying 100 litres of hot water per day to each of the 25 flats. Urban Earth was contracted to manage the monitoring of this project. The primary activities will be to install a metering system that will compare residential units (flats) that have solar heated water with those that do not and conduct interviews with residents to assess usage of hot water. The meters have been installed and regular reporting is taking place. The reporting period ends in Dec 2014.
4. Private Sector Energy Efficiency Program
The “Private Sector Energy Efficiency” Project (PSEE) aims to improve energy efficiency in commercial and industrial companies in South Africa through the provision of various services to assist companies in identifying and implementing energy saving measures.
The project which comes under the UK-SA Bilateral relationship will contribute to the South African government’s strategy for reducing energy demand. The PSEE Project will be governed by a multi-stakeholder Steering Committee led by the Department of Energy. The PSEE Project seeks to support companies towards achieving:
• Increased awareness of energy efficiency
• Energy savings
• Energy intensity reductions
• Operational reliability
• Reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions
• Improved economic competitiveness through resource and process efficiency
• Investment leveraged from private and public sectors through capital investment in energy efficiency projects
• Indirect social benefits such as job creation/job retention and skills development relating to energy efficiency services
5. V-Nama Program
The aim of this project is for the eThekwini Municipality to pilot Vertically Integrated Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (V-NAMA) in public sector building energy efficiency.
The objectives of the V-NAMA will be to address some of the key barriers identified above through a vertically integrated national mitigation action focused on energy efficiency in public buildings at the provincial and municipal level and test this approach in the context of a pilot programme.
Specifically, the V-NAMA Pilot Programme pursues five objectives:
• Develop a bankable, MRV-capable (monitoring, reporting, verification) V-NAMA pilot proposal
• Elaborate a package of practical and effective incentives to align interests across the different government levels to specifically promote mitigation actions at municipal and provincial level.
• Establish a consistent MRV methodology to capture greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions at all three levels of government in a way that they can be aggregated at national level.
• Empower sub nationals by strengthening their capacity through finance, technology, institutional and governance training.
• Develop practical national policy/guidelines for the preparation of vertically integrated NAMAs, for effective programme preparation and implementation, building on a co-operative governance model that may be relevant for other South African NAMAs.
The purpose of this analysis was to test whether the costs of implementing Daylight Savings Time (DST) would justify these benefits. Daylight Saving Time is frequently raised as means to promote energy savings, and to enhance lifestyle benefits for Durban residents and tourism. 
From an energy perspective – the possible benefits of Daylight Saving Time (DST) which need to be better understood are (i) net energy demand reduction and (ii) peak load shifting.
The recommendations from the research are as follows:
EThekwini Municipality should pursue the promotion of voluntary DST amongst businesses for whom this makes sense and can be done without creating additional costs or affecting the competitiveness of these businesses. This is likely to include the public service sector and finance and business services sector. The retail and manufacturing sectors are more likely to be exposed to increased costs and business competitiveness costs as a result of adopting DST. A number of incentive development options could be explored further by the municipality and private sector partners. Apart from incentives, it would also be important to develop an advocacy programme that would educate residents on the benefits of voluntary DST. 
Download full report here