​The Fifth report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes Mitigation, “‘Mitigation’ is the effort to control the human sources of climate change and their cumulative impacts, notably the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutants, such as black carbon particles, that also affect the plant’s energy balance. Mitigation also includes efforts to enhance the processes that remove GHGs from the atmosphere, known as sinks”1.

Greenhouse gases include: Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur Hexafluoride.  Some of these GHGs have a greater greenhouse effect than other gases. Methane has a Global warming potential of 23, these means that it is 23 times more harmful than Carbon Dioxide. Carbon dioxide, however, is the most abundant of the GHGs.
 
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The GHGs that are emitted into the atmosphere trap the heat that is produced by the sun within the atmosphere, this results in higher temperatures and causes the Greenhouse Effect.
 
In order to reduce the Greenhouse Effect, it is critical to reduce the amount of GHGs that are emitted by anthropogenic activities. The reduction of GHGs that are being emitted can be achieved through various measures such as renewable energy, energy efficiency, non-motorised transport, etc.
 
The increase in temperature will cause the natural balance to go out of sync and will result in various climate change risks that are not part of natural cycles. These risks include flooding, drought, famine and shifting of climatic zones.